The teacher supports children's learning by preparing materials and a classroom climate of trust and support between the teacher and each child as well each child toward his or her peers. The teacher determines when to introduce new materials by observing each child's progress, taking notes, and presenting new ideas to individual children or small groups of children as indicated by their development.
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Central to Montessori learning is the ethic of respect for self and others and respect for one's environment. Children learn the importance of approaching others politely and asking to join others in activities. These skills support a critical balance between autonomy and a cooperative community.
Choice and spontaneity, core principles of a Montessori education, are achieved in an orderly environment. Children exercise freedom within limits to facilitate a productive working environment for everyone.
Children's creativity is free flowing in this prepared environment. Children can try new activities without fear of reprimand or competition from others. This sense of safety facilitates intellectual development derived from choosing activities that capture and maintain children's interest, and self esteem that comes from accomplishing self-designated learning tasks. Joy is the pervasive emotion that governs children's work.
|Individually-paced lessons that challenge children's critical thinking skills.||Pre-designed lessons in designated time block.|
|Teacher guidance to facilitate activities in a timeframe most suitable to the needs of each child.||Persistent teacher intervention to meet learning objectives in a predetermined time.|
|Cooperation and respect for each child's autonomy.||Competition with peers to complete tasks quickly.|
|Emphasis on learning that is individually suited to each child's level of development.||Emphasis on standardized learning objectives.|
|Individualized teaching for effectiveness.||Routinized learning goals for efficiency.|
|Learning that connects to children's lives, allowing children to engage in higher brain functions, such as inductive and deductive logic and synthesis of ideas.||Learning as fragmented pieces that exist for some purpose that the teacher understands.|
Italian born Maria Montessori (1870-1952) began studying children as a medical doctor. Through scientific observation, Dr. Montessori learned that children develop cognitive skills in a nurturing environment filled with materials that stimulate their interest. She developed the Montessori Method based upon essential observable tenets:
Montessori's educational philosophy, although decades old, is recognized around the world as a progressive approach that leads to a lifetime of academic excellence. As Montessori stated, "Education is not something which the teacher does…It is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being. It is not acquired by listening to words, but in virtue of experiences in which the child acts on his [or her] environment."