Developmentally appropriate practice is a phrase often used to describe Jean Piaget’s focus on children’s stages of development, which emphasizes the importance of matching instruction to children’s readiness to learn. The difficulty is the educator’s ability to understand when a child has reached a developmental stage that requires new strategies and materials to challenge the child.
This educator awareness is a critical factor in choosing an early childhood center. To accomplish goals that are developmentally appropriate, the following features should be in place:
• First, teachers are well prepared with academic and classroom management skills that nurture and support all children. (In addition to academic credentials, teachers should participate in on-going educational development.)
• Second, ratios allow for individual attention as well as one-on-one and small group instruction.
• Third, teachers are aware of each child’s development, serving the purpose of persistent, informal assessment. (This teacher awareness creates opportunities for teachers to present materials at individually challenging levels.)
• Fourth, curricular materials and activities provide opportunities for children to explore independently and socially with peers. (These materials should span the academic disciplines including core subjects as well as the arts.)
• Fifth, a school is an emotionally appealing place to learn. (Children deserve to discover in classrooms with ample space and natural lighting.)
Each of the above factors is important when evaluating appropriate learning opportunities. Without effective teachers, ratios that support personalized learning, and an inviting learning environment, children’s opportunities are compromised.
Developmentally appropriate practice is a phrase that carries profound meaning. Dancing Moose is committed to follow through with all of the basic tenets that allow children to maximize their learning potential.
It is that time of year! Ready for some holiday cheer? Dancing Moose has been working so hard with all of the students in preparation for the following performances:
Tuesday, December 9th at Viridian Event Center
4:00 pm Class 10 all sessions
5:00 pm Class 5 & 8
6:00 pm Class 6 & 7
7:00 pm Class 11 & 12
Wednesday, December 17th at River Park Gym
4:00 pm Class 4 in Gym (Santa visit at 4:30 pm in class) AND Class 1 in Class with Santa first
4:30 pm Class 2 (Santa visit at 5 pm in class)
5:00 pm Class 3 (Santa visit at 5:30 pm in class)
Jenn is more than an administrator at Dancing Moose. You will often see her in the classroom teaching and assisting, in the halls talking with teachers and parents, but most of all connecting with the children as they enter the school. She knows the children on a personal level, she knows her teachers and her parents, and that is how a community is built! We love you Jenn.
As the Executive Director at Dancing Moose Montessori School (DMMS), Jennifer Duffield has a Montessori teaching credential in toddler as well as early childhood education. These certifications provide a foundation for Jennifer’s overseeing day-to-day operations. Her academic background in chemistry (Bachelor of Science) and business (Master of Business Administration) supports her role as director of faculty and staff. She has conducted research and collaborated with numerous individuals in early childhood education to develop best practices for DMMS.
Jennifer also directs personnel hiring and evaluating teacher performance to ensure quality and identify areas for further training. She organizes and administers in-service training to follow through with quarterly reports on performance goals and objectives. Her highest priority is to maintain positive relations with parents and community members.
Jennifer been the primary liaison to involve Dancing Moose in community outreach programs, such as Deseret Industries contributions, fund raising for the Utah Food Bank, Utah Animal Shelter, Utah Coalition for Healthy Weight (which is part of the Dancing Moose effort to help children develop habits for a healthy lifestyle), and tuition scholarships for low income families.
During her Westminster College MBA program, Jennifer wrote the Dancing Moose business plan. She continues to attend Quarterly conferences to ensure that Dancing Moose is not only an ideal choice for children and families, but is a supportive and innovative workplace for teachers.
As a measure to maintain teacher quality and satisfaction, Jennifer conducts annual review meetings with teachers and has an open door policy to listen and make workplace adjustments as needed. She conducts weekly coordination teacher meetings to improve communication and teacher trainings on Saturdays to further the education of her teachers.
Jennifer remains an active member of the MBA Alumni Board at Westminster College. In the fall of 2010, she participated in a semester long course that allowed MBA students to analyze the Dancing Moose business model. She made multiple presentations to the class and invited them to visit the school. Students ended their class by writing consultant reports for Dancing Moose.
In April 2010, Jennifer was invited to be a keynote speaker for Westminster's Entrepreneurial Lecture Series for over 100 individuals to offer advice about the Dancing Moose business model. In June 2012, she participated in a video interview for an online entrepreneurial college course. In September 2013, she was invited to be on a "star alumni" as part of Westminster's Business School's 25th anniversary celebration.
Tears at Graduation- Life Lesson
Montessori classrooms are different. They look different from other classrooms. The curriculum is different from other curricula. The teachers are different from other teachers. With all the ways in which Montessori programs differ from traditional schools, how can they still reflect contemporary understanding of "best practices" for education? If they did, wouldn't they look more the same?
Not necessarily. Our current understanding of best practice includes in it wide variations to serve the developmental needs of individual children, particularly in early childhood programs. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) contends that quality care for young children must be age-appropriate, culturally appropriate, and individually appropriate. Further, NAEYC offers guidelines in five primary areas for assessing the activities that should be available for children in high quality educational settings: gross-motor, fine-motor, language, cognitive, and social development. Understanding how these standards are met and exceeded in Montessori classrooms can help parents to better understand their own children's experiences.
Best Practice Allows for Gross Motor Development
NAEYC asserts that, in order to assure the proper development of children's gross-motor skills, certain types of experiences must be available for each child. First, the child must be permitted physical activity throughout the day. In Montessori classrooms, that translates to free movement throughout the room. You may see children sitting at tables, lying on the floor, or climbing to a loft. You may see children carrying heavy trays, moving furniture, or handling cumbersome equipment. Consider the tiny 4-year-old who so diligently carries a basin of water to the sink. The gross-motor coordination that is required for daily activities is pervasive in Montessori classrooms, instead of being limited to the playground.
The Montessori Method values children's freedom of movement as a necessary precursor to their intellectual development. Children aren't limited to a few tables or chairs or asked to remain still for long periods of time. Children's natural impulse to move and explore is respected as an inherent indicator of their curiosity and their developing self-control.
Likewise, NAEYC standards recommend that children be free to move, explore and act upon objects in their environment. Montessori is clearly a hands-on curriculum! The Montessori materials invite children's exploration and experimentation Montessorians believe that children far beyond the preschool years must be able to experience concepts concretely before they understand those concepts abstractly. Think about the Binomial Cube: This seemingly difficult concept is offered as a puzzle to young children, then named as an equation for older children, and finally understood as an abstract algebraic concept. The gross-motor activities of the Montessori classroom are designed to develop the confidence and competence upon which children's further learning will be established. It's far more than just moving around the classroom.
Best Practice Allows for Fine Motor Development
NAEYC requires that activities with corresponding tools be provided for children to develop fine-motor skills. Montessori classrooms offer many of the same tools as do traditional schools: crayons, pencils, scissors, and paints. But Montessori classrooms bring that development further by increasing the range and variety of fine-motor activities, often using tools that surprise parents with their complexity. Consider Practical Life, in which children's fine-motor skills are systematically supported through the careful sequencing of activities. Pouring large beans, then smaller ones, then sand or salt requires an increasing aptitude and developing fine-motor skills. Using a screwdriver or peeling a carrot supports muscular development in practical, applicable skills. Sensorial materials provide small knobs, tiny pieces, and figures of various shapes and sizes. Further, NAEYC requires opportunities for practice. Montessori classrooms protect children's desire to repeat activities and to select materials that are appropriate to them. Children are encouraged to practice skills not only through repeated experiences with the same materials, but also through constant exposure to diverse and enticing materials that develop similar skills.
National standards require appropriate expectations of fine-motor development from teachers. The Montessori teacher, who has been well educated in the many ways in which a child can show mastery of skill, is attentive to each child's development. Montessori classrooms provide ample and various means by which children can develop the muscles in their hands, for example, long before the children are ever expected to hold a pencil or write their names. Again, the careful sequencing of activities which increase in difficulty and complexity as the child develops supports the emergence of children's skills at a pace appropriate for each child.
Best Practice Allows for the Development of Language and Communication Skills
Teachers in high quality programs universally value language development and communication skills. National standards call for opportunities for children to talk and interact with their peers and with adults. Montessorians list among the essential freedoms of the child "Freedom of Language." In high quality classrooms, children are encouraged to speak with adults and other children. Best practices include teachers who understand the development of language and use appropriate moments to help develop and correct children's language. Montessori classrooms are filled with practical language development, from the nomenclature cards to named objects within formal lessons, to the assurance that adults in the classroom will not speak down to children or use baby talk.
National standards also encourage verbal generation of ideas by children. Watch Montessori classrooms during community meetings and when children are problem-solving with each other. During these times, children's ideas are easy to notice. But watch more closely and you'll see them present throughout the day, as children master materials and explain how they did so to their friends or teachers, and as children share with each other lessons they've received or make plans for activities to do together. Because Montessori classrooms allow for the natural development of social networks among children, language in these classrooms is spontaneous, rich, and varied.
What About Dramatic Play?
National standards for early childhood education require that classrooms provide opportunities for dramatic play. Parents rarely see dramatic play in Montessori classrooms, though. Where are the dress-up boxes? Where is the play kitchen? If Montessori classrooms focus on the individual development of the children they serve, shouldn't dramatic play be more present there?
Montessorians haven't abandoned dramatic play. Indeed, Dr. Montessori's own writings describe children's inherent desire to practice the activities they observed in adults. But while traditional classrooms may select a theme for dramatic play, Montessori classrooms allow this "play" to be created by the children instead of the teacher. The materials of Practical Life allow for children to practice the skills they've seen their parents perform. Listen carefully, though, to the language children use when they're working with these materials, and you may be surprised by how much more is happening in the children's minds than the simple pouring of water. Montessori teachers describe watching children explore imaginary contents to the Opening and Closing Containers lesson, or pretend to be pouring tea for a guest, or imagine stitching a button on a beautiful gown when they're really working with empty jars, pitchers of water, or snips of muslin. Children imagine that the knobbed cylinders are families, or that the cubes of the pink tower are stories in a building. There is no less dramatic play in Montessori classrooms. Rather, the imagination of these children emerges from the children themselves rather than from a teacher telling them who they need to pretend to be each day. The spontaneous creativity of children in Montessori classrooms is quite profound, and far surpasses the stories or costumes adults could provide.
Best Practices Support Cognitive Development
Children's cognitive abilities should be supported in high quality classrooms through a variety of activities designed to meet an equally wide span of development. These activities should support symbolic thought, which Montessori provides through the deliberate sequence from concrete to abstract concepts and representations. Children understand first the name and purpose of the object they hold in their hands. From there, they transfer that name to its picture, then its outline. Finally, the child understands that a simple image can represent that original object. This sequence is present in every area of the Montessori classroom, from recipe cards in Practical Life to grammatical diagrams in Language.
Activities should also allow for the development of concentration, which is highly valued and protected in the Montessori classroom. Children's activities are not interrupted by adults and are protected from the interruption of other children.
Activities should also allow for concept acquisition and the development of reasoning. The self-correcting materials of Montessori classrooms support children's individual problem-solving skills while providing concrete concepts for the child to master.
Likewise, each of these activities, according to NAEYC, should provide opportunities for information processing through meaningful activities, without an expectation of rote memorization and within an organized structure. Montessori classrooms are filled with meaningful activities, with an expectation that children would prefer to do "the real thing" rather than pretend. The natural exposure to concepts without heavy memorizing and the consistent and predictable structure of Montessori allows children's cognitive development to unfold rapidly.
Best Practices Allow for Social and Emotional Development
Social-emotional experiences in early childhood help form a child's sense of self and his ability to interact and to be successful with unpredictable situations in the future. Among the ways that both NAEYC and Montessori classrooms value this social-emotional development is through open support for cooperative play (visible in small groups of children working together), alternatives to aggression (Montessori community meetings or peace tables), adult awareness of children's fragile self-concept (apparent in the deep respect and compassion shown children by their Montessori teachers), and appropriate discipline. NAEYC asserts that quality classrooms will help individual children develop a sense of self-reliance, independence, responsibility, success, and problem-solving. What accurate terms to describe a Montessori child!
Is Montessori Consistent with Best Practices?
There are a few complaints sometimes levied against Montessori programs. People suggest that Montessori is too structured, that creativity or social interactions are limited. Others complain that Montessori is too free, that children learn bad habits or that teachers allow children to do whatever they want. But healthy Montessori classrooms allow for enough structure to provide the predictability that benefits children's developing sense of their environments, and provide freedom within that structure for children to explore, make mistakes, develop new ideas, and test boundaries. Healthy Montessori programs provide abundant opportunities for children to socialize with each other and share their joys and challenges. The buzz of an active Montessori classroom is the sound of children enjoying their experiences and enthusiastically relating those successes to others.
Because Montessorians use the language of "work" instead of "play," people sometimes assume that Montessori classrooms aren't fun. This is far from the truth. Montessorians use the word "work" to describe everything the child does, because the child's "work" is to learn about the world and find his or her place within it. Healthy Montessori classrooms are visibly joyful. Children are peaceful not because they are being forced to be, but because their needs are met and their frustrations seem surmountable. Children take responsibility for each other not because it is "the rule," but because they are supported in developing inter-reliant relationships in which they are deeply invested. In short, Montessori may be the most ideal representation of best practice because, when educated teachers follow individual children's development in carefully prepared environments, Montessori proves, each day, that children are more creative, more compassionate, and more capable than any standard could define.
Bredekamp, S., & Rosegrant, T. (1992). Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bredekamp, S., Copple, C., & members of NAEYC (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Puckett, M.B., & Black, J., (2000). The young child: Development from prebirth through age eight. New York: J. Prentice Hall.
Lillard, P. (1997). Montessori in the classroom: A teacher's account of how children really learn. New York: Schocken.
CATHERINE MCTAMANEY is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt University. Her work has been published in Mothering magazine and the NCME Montessori Reporter.
Montessori Center School